This course will explore cells and tissues of the human body (histology or micro-anatomy) by the use of various microscopic techniques. Special emphasis will be placed on the structure-function relationship in different tissues and organs and the role of stem cells in tissue regeneration. The lectures will be supplemented by the practical analysis of various organs, tissues and cells using virtual microscopy. This course is geared towards graduate and upper level undergraduate students with an interest in the biomedical sciences and with a basic knowledge in cell biology and/or biochemistry. At the end of the course students should be able to recognize and interpret microscopic tissue images and understand how the cellular organization of organs enables them to perform their specific functions.
By the end of the year, we hope that you have acquired a reasonable working knowledge of:
- how cells associate to perform the functions for which they are specialized, and
- how organized groups of cells (tissues) are arranged to form the organ systems of the body.
While the emphasis in histology is on the structure of cells, tissues and organs, structure has very little meaning without understanding the function, much of which is also presented in the other components of the curriculum. There is an emphasis to teach comparable subjects at about the same time, and we ask that you try and correlate structure and function. Most diseases cause structural abnormalities that result in the problems with which you, as a physician, must contend. One reason for studying histology (the normal structure) is so that you can better understand a pathological (abnormal) change and the consequences of that change.
You will be spending most of your time studying two dimensional sections of three dimensional structures, and will encounter a number of atypical perspectives caused by the plane of section (Imagine that you are sectioning an orange in sagittal, parasagittal, equatorial and diagonal planes. The appearance of the orange sections is quite different depending upon the plane of section--the same variation in appearance occurs in tissue and organs because of the angle of sectioning). Try to find a typical perspective for your introduction to a new tissue or organ (use your atlas as a guide). Then try to imagine what it would look like in three dimensions.
24 meetings of 2 contact hours, most lectures will be followed by a 20 to 30 minute lecture-style laboratory segment (adding up to 2 hours per session), which will use virtual microscopy for a practical demonstration of the material covered by the lecture and for a deeper understanding of the basic concepts. The course provides 4 contact hours per week and is offered for 4 credits. After the lecture/lab sessions all students are expected to use the course website, which contains instructions and laboratory tasks, as well as supplementary learning resources, to deepen their understanding of the material and to develop their skills of identifying histological structures.
You are expected to learn histology by learning the lecture material AND by studying the slides of tissues and organs using virtual microscopy on the Michigan Histology website. The other items of materials, listed below and in the Looking Glass Histology M+Box, should serve as the sources of information necessary for you to understand the functional significance of the structures that you view in the virtual images. A link to download the SecondLook™ Histology mobile review application will be provided to you in the first introductory lecture. The use of one of the following textbooks or histology atlases is also recommended:
1 RECOMMENDED as atlas: Wheater's Functional Histology, 6th ed., Elsevier, 2014 by B. Young et al.
2 RECOMMENDED as text and atlas: Histology: A Text and Atlas, 7th ed., LWW, 2016 by W. Pawlina.
3 RECOMMENDED as text and atlas Junqueira's Basic Histology, 13th ed, McGraw Hill - Lange, 2013 by A.L. Mescher
Please, consult your daily calendar for each lecture and laboratory hours. The lecture should serve as a study guide for each topic area.The lecture contents should also serve as a guide for the exam and quiz questions since lecturers formulate the majority of the questions. Most of the lecture slides (images) will be placed in the Histology resource pages on the web for you to view after lecture. It would be very useful to read the relevant text chapter before lecture.
Two examinations, one midterm and one final, and six quizzes will all be open book (the subject of the day of a quiz will be covered in the next quiz). Quizzes will cover the last three to five lecture topics before the quiz with four questions per lecture topic (about 96 total quiz questions). Midterm and final exam will be about 50 questions each + 4 more difficult bonus questions. This will add up to a total of about 196 questions + 8 more difficult bonus questions. Quizzes and exams will be open book. However, using the Internet is not allowed. All questions will have a multiple-choice format and most will be image-based. The images and questions contained in the quizzes and exams may not be copied or distributed and violations of this policy will be considered honor code violations. Graduate students, who are taking the course as CDB550, will have an additional writing requirement: To receive CDB550 credit, each student must formulate 2 sets of 5 multiple choice questions, each set covering the first half and the second half of the course respectively. Each question should have only one indisputably correct answer. Only one question in each set may be a true/false questions, all other question should have at least 4 possible answers. Only one question in each set may be a pure text question, all other questions should include and require an image (either light microscope, electron microscope or a drawing). Each of 5 questions in each set should represent a different lecture topic. Please submit your two sets of questions as a Word file to the GSI by the end of the day of the midterm and the final examination, respectively. Late submissions may result in a point reduction. Questions, which combine identification tasks with functional aspects of the cells and tissues involved will be rated higher than questions, which address only one aspect. Other important points will be clarity of the question posed, equal credibility of the different possible answers and the relevance and importance of the concept tested. For each question, include not only the correct answer, but also very short statement, why this is the correct answer (often one or two sentences will suffice).
To receive CDB550 credit, each student must formulate 2 sets of 5 multiple choice questions, each set covering the first half and the second half of the course respectively. Each question will be worth up to 5 points for a total of 50 points for all 10 problems.
A) Each question should have only one indisputably correct answer.
B) Only one question in each set may be a true/false questions, all other question should have at least 4 possible answers.
C) Only one question in each set may be a pure text question, all other questions should include and require an image (either light microscope micrograph, electron microscope micrograph or a drawing). You can use images from any source as long as the quality of the image is acceptable. Please always quote the source of the image. The image must be essential or provide important details/information for answering the question.
D) Each of 5 questions in each set should represent a different lecture topic.
E) Only one question may be a simple identification problem. All other question should combine identification tasks with functional aspects about the cells or the tissue involved.
F) For each question, include not only the correct answer, but also very short statement, why this is the correct answer (often one or two sentences will suffice).
Your two sets of questions must be submitted to Dr. Shen (firstname.lastname@example.org) as an MS Word file by the end of the day the midterm or final examinations are scheduled. Late submissions or submissions in a different format causing a delay will result in a point reduction. Other important points will be the clarity of the question posed, equal credibility of the different possible answers and the relevance and importance of the concept tested.
Very important: No or reduced credit will be given for questions that paraphrase existing problems from the histology webpage, theSecondLook series, text books or other sources. In extreme cases this may be regarded as plagiarism with no credit given.
If you have a histology question, see the faculty member responsible for the lecture or the course director. A list of the course faculty with relevant information can be found below.
For website, sever, or other technical problems please contact the LRC Help Desk
Electron Micrographs: The digital EM images on the webpage are for the most part, micrographs provided by Dr. Johannes A. G. Rhodin, who also authored "An Atlas of Histology" (Oxford Press, 1974). Remember that the material contained herein is copyrighted, and it is intended to be used by histology students only. More detailed comments on electron micrographs appear at the end of the Epitheliasection (the first lesson in this laboratory guide).
Successful completion of ONE of the following or an equivalent course is a prerequisite and exceptions are at the digression of the course directors: AT 310/PHYSED 310; BIOLOGY 172, 174, 208, 225 or 305; BIOLCHEM 212 or 415; BIOMEDE 231, 321 or 403; CHEM 351; MCDB 306, 308, 310 or 428; NURS 210 or PHYSIOL 201. Admission will be limited with preference given to graduate and senior undergraduate students. Undergraduate students should sign up under the CDB 450 number, whereas graduate students should enroll under the CDB 550 number.
Tuesday and Thursday 4 to 6 pm. Due to the classroom shortage on Central Campus, we are currently assigned a smaller classroom, which will be too small on quiz and examination days. At this point, alternative locations are under consideration and a final decision will be announced at the beginning of the course. For further information, please contact Dr. Hortsch (email@example.com).